The New Way Things Work David Macaulay
Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 40 Gy whole-breast radiotherapy (control), 36 Gy whole-breast radiotherapy and 40 Gy to the partial breast (reduced-dose group), or 40 Gy to the partial breast only (partial-breast group) in 15 daily treatment fractions. Computer-generated random permuted blocks (mixed sizes of six and nine) were used to assign patients to groups, stratifying patients by radiotherapy treatment centre. Patients and clinicians were not masked to treatment allocation. Field-in-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy was delivered using standard tangential beams that were simply reduced in length for the partial-breast group. The primary endpoint was ipsilateral local relapse (80% power to exclude a 2Â·5% increase [non-inferiority margin] at 5 years for each experimental group; non-inferiority was shown if the upper limit of the two-sided 95% CI for the local relapse hazard ratio [HR] was less than 2Â·03), analysed by intention to treat. Safety analyses were done in all patients for whom data was available (ie, a modified intention-to-treat population).
Increasing the biological effective dose (BED) of radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can increase local control rates and improve overall survival. Compared with conventional fractionated radiotherapy, accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy can yield higher BED, shorten the total treatment time, and theoretically obtain better efficacy. However, currently, there is no optimal hypofractionated radiotherapy regimen. Based on phase I trial results, we performed this phase II trial to further evaluate the safety and preliminary efficacy of accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy(3-DCRT) combined with concurrent chemotherapy for patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC. Patients with previously untreated unresectable stage III NSCLC received 3-DCRT with a total dose of 69 Gy, delivered at 3 Gy per fraction, once daily, five fractions per week, completed within 4/6 weeks. At the same time, platinum doublet chemotherapy was applied. After 12 patients were enrolled in the group, the trial was terminated early. There were five cases of grade III radiation esophagitis, of which four cases completed the radiation doses of 51 Gy, 51 Gy, 54 Gy, and 66 Gy, and one case had 16 days of radiation interruption. The incidence of grade III acute esophagitis in patients receiving an irradiation dose per fraction â¥2/7 Gy on the esophagus was 83/3% (5/6). The incidence of symptomatic grade III radiation pneumonitis among the seven patients who completed 69 Gy according to the plan was 28/6% (2/7).